KMP (File Format)
- File formats
- KMP File Format & Sections
- AREA type
- ENPT Settings
- ITPT Settings
- Item Settings - Item Boxes
- Item Settings - Objects
- KMP Editing
- KMP Editing/Cameras
- Start Position
- Check Point
- Respawn Point
- Presence flags
- Sort points from a list
- Testing a Track
- Visual Review with »wkmpt DRAW«
A KMP File contains information about how the course is played, such as start positions and check points. A variant on the KMP format has been used in Mario Kart DS. This article describes the Mario Kart Wii KMP format. The Mario Kart 7 KMP format is described here.
This is the general layout for a KMP header:
|0x04||UInt32||Length of the file in bytes.|
|0x08||UInt16||N = Number of sections in the file.|
|0x0C||UInt32||Unknown meaning, perhaps something like a revision number. The value of MK7 KMP files is 0x1C0C (le) = 3100.|
|0x10||UInt32[N]||N section offsets. The type of each section can be detected by analysing the first 4 bytes of the section; it's always the section name. The offset is relative to the end of this header.|
|N * 0x04 + 0x10||End of this file header|
Mario Kart Wii specific file header
This is specific file header for Mario Kart Wii tracks. It is a structure with 0x4C (=76) bytes. Some files like old_mario_gc_hayasi.szs have a different section layout.
|0x00||String||File magic. Always RKMD in ASCII.|
|0x04||UInt32||Length of the file in bytes.|
|0x08||UInt16||Number of sections in the file (15).|
|0x0A||UInt16||The length of the header in bytes. This value is usually 0x4C.|
|0x0C||UInt32||Unknown meaning, perhaps something like a revision number. The value for all KMP files in MKW is 0x9D8 (2520), with 2 exceptions: The value for draw_demo.txt is 0x910 (2320), and for loser_demo.txt it's 0x9CE (2510); both incl. "_d" variant.|
|0x10||UInt32||KTPT section offset (starting positions of racers).|
|0x14||UInt32||ENPT section offset (enemy route points).|
|0x18||UInt32||ENPH section offset (divide enemy points into groups).|
|0x1C||UInt32||ITPT section offset (item route points).|
|0x20||UInt32||ITPH section offset (divide item points into groups).|
|0x24||UInt32||CKPT section offset (check points).|
|0x28||UInt32||CKPH section offset (divide checkpoints into groups).|
|0x2C||UInt32||GOBJ section offset (global objects).|
|0x30||UInt32||POTI section offset (routes).|
|0x34||UInt32||AREA section offset (areas).|
|0x38||UInt32||CAME section offset (cameras).|
|0x3C||UInt32||JGPT section offset (respawn positions).|
|0x40||UInt32||CNPT section offset (cannon target positions).|
|0x44||UInt32||MSPT section offset (end battle positions).|
|0x48||UInt32||STGI section offset (stage information).|
|0x4C||End of this file header|
All offsets are relative to the end of the header. The section order is irrelevant for the game, but all MKW tracks use this section order. You can swap those sections and the track will still work.
The file consists of a series of sections, each describing a different aspect of the course. Each section has a header and entries. The header structure is equal for all sections. The section order of this page reflects the order of the KMP files.
|0x00||UInt32||The section name in ASCII.|
|0x04||UInt16||Number of entries.|
|0x06||UInt16||Additional value. The POTI section stores the total number of points of all routes. The CAME section store different values (see CAME section for details). For all other sections the value is 0 (seems to be padding).|
|0x08||End of header & start of first entry|
The KTPT (kart point) section describes kart points; the starting positions of racers. Each entry is a 0x1C byte structure as follows.
|0x00||Float||A 3D position vector of the start position.|
|0x0C||Float|| A 3D rotation vector of the start position.
The related start line of the minimap is not mirrored at mirror races. So it is recommended to use only multiple of ±90° (one of 0°, ±90°, ±180° or ±270°) for the Y-rotation. See »Start Line Bug« for details.
|0x18||Int16||The player index. In courses with multiple start positions (such as battle courses), this determines which players start here. Otherwise set to 0xFFFF to set all players start positions to this point.|
For races (not battle) and time trial always the first entry independent of the player index is used to define the positions of all 12 drivers. There are 2 flags in section STGI to place the drivers a little bit closer and to define the pool position (left or right). See »Start Position« for more details.
The ENPT (enemy point) section describes enemy points; the routes of CPU racers. The CPU racers attempt to follow the path described by each group of points (as determined by ENPH). More than 0xFF (255) entries will force a console freeze while loading the track. Each entry is a 0x14 byte structure as follows:
|0x00||Float||A 3D position vector of the enemy position.|
|0x0C||Float||This value controls, how much the enemies leave the direct point-to-point line to the left and right side.|
|0x10||UInt16||Point setting 1. ENPT Settings.|
|0x12||Byte||Point setting 2. ENPT Settings.|
|0x13||Byte||Point setting 3. ENPT Settings.|
|0x00||Byte||Point start. The index of the first ENPT entry in this group.|
|0x01||Byte||Point length. The number of ENPT entries in this group.|
|0x02||Byte||Previous group. The indicies of up to 6 the previous ENPH groups entries may have followed. Unneeded slots are set to value 0xFF. Theses values are used if a driver drives back or is respawned at an position before falling down.|
|0x08||Byte||Next group. The indicies of up to 6 next ENPH group entries to follow. Unneeded slots are set to value 0xFF. Each driver uses one route randomly, but a short cut item can be set as condition (see ENPT Settings). To increase the probability of one route, enter the section index more than once.|
The ITPT (item point) section describes item points; the routes of items such as red shells. The items attempt to follow the path described by each group of points (as determined by ITPH). More than 0xFF (255) entries will force a console freeze while loading the track. Each entry is a 0x14 byte structure as follows:
|0x00||Float||A 3D position vector of the item position.|
|0x0C||Float||Bullet Bill can be controlled a little bit by left and right. And this value defines the range. Factor 1 allows about 10 units left and right movement.|
|0x10||UInt16||Point properties 1. ITPT Settings.|
|0x12||UInt16||Point properties 2. ITPT Settings.|
|0x00||Byte||Point start. The index of the first ITPT entry in this group.|
|0x01||Byte||Point length. The number of ITPT entries in this group.|
|0x02||Byte||Previous group. The indicies of up to 6 the previous ITPH groups entries may have followed. Unneeded slots are set to value 0xFF. Theses values are used if a driver drives back or is respawned at an position before falling down.|
|0x08||Byte||Next group. The indicies of up to 6 next ITPH group entries to follow. Unneeded slots are set to value 0xFF. The first link is the standard route. The other links are only used, if a driver enters the route or if a red shell has already selected a driver.|
The CKPT (checkpoint) section describes check points; the routes players must follow to count laps. The racers must follow the path described by each group of points (as determined by CKPH). More than 0xFF (255) entries are possible, if the last group begins at index ≤254. But it is not recommended, because Lakitu appears. Each entry is a 0x14 byte structure as follows:
|0x00||Float||A 2D position vector (X and Z coordinate) of the left point of the check point line.|
|0x08||Float||A 2D position vector (X and Z coordinate) of the right point of the check point line.|
|0x10||Byte||Respawn position. This is a zero based index link into the JGPT section to respawn players at once they have entered this checkpoint. For the lap count trigger and for the key check points it is important, that the respawn point is before the check point.|
|0x11||Byte||Checkpoint type (see notes below).|
|0x12||Byte||Previous check point in this group's sequence; 0xFF for the first point of the group.|
|0x13||Byte|| Next check point in this group's sequence; 0xFF for the last point of the group.
The check point area is a quadrilateral created by the 2 points of the current check point and the 2 points of the next check point. For end of groups, all by CKPH linked points are used to create multiple check point areas. A check point is triggered, if a player enters (one of) this quadrilateral.
Checkpoints are separated in 3 type classes:
- Lap count trigger (type 0x00): When passed in right direction it increases the lap count, if you pass in reverse direction it decreases the lap count. All players start in lap 0 and after passing the line in lap 1. The shown lap number is the maximal reached one and never smaller than 1. If 2 or more lap counters exist, the track has an online positioning bug: Each player is counted as position 1 after crossing any lap counter with the effect of bad items.
- Key checkpoint (types 0x01 – 0xFE): If you cross 01 you need to follow all in order before lap count trigger works. Used to prevent ultra shortcuts. These kind of check points is also relevant for respawning if falling down far away from other check points. A good idea is to place a key check point directly before and another behind the lap count trigger.
- Normal checkpoint (type 0xFF): Used for setting respawns and checking in which position you are. It may effects more.
⇒ For more details, see article »Check Point«, that explains the quadrilateral model.
|0x00||Byte||Point start. The index of the first CKPT entry in this group.|
|0x01||Byte||Point length. The number of CKPT entries in this group.|
|0x02||Byte||Previous group. The indicies of up to 6 the previous CKPH groups entries may have followed. Unneeded slots are set to value 0xFF.|
|0x08||Byte||Next group. The indicies of up to 6 next CKPH group entries to follow. Unneeded slots are set to value 0xFF.|
The GOBJ (game object) section describes objects; things on the course such as item boxes, pipes and also control objects such as sound triggers. Each entry is a 0x3C byte structure as follows:
|0x00||UInt16||Object ID to identify the Object. See »Object« or »KMP Object Query«.|
|0x04||Float||A 3D position vector of the object.|
|0x10||Float||A 3D rotation vector of the object's rotation in degree.|
|0x1C||Float||A 3D scale vector of the object's scale. Value 1.0 is the neutral scale.|
|0x28||UInt16||Route used by the object. This is index link into the POTI section. The value 0xFFFF means "no route".|
|0x2A||UInt16||Up to 8 object specific settings. See »Object«.|
|0x3C||End of object & start of next object|
Each object has a origin. The origin is a well defined point. If it is placed directly on the ground, the position of the object is perfect. For example the item box has its origin about 50 units below the lowest visible point. The positioning of objects is done in this order:
- First a object is scaled around the origin. See the picture on the right for the axes. For some animated objects like the item box, the scale factors are ignored.
- Then the object is rotated. The rotation is done in three steps. For some animated objects the rotation values are ignored.
- Right-handed rotation around the X-axis using the X-coordinate of the 3D vector.
- Right-handed rotation around the Y-axis using the Y-coordinate of the 3D vector.
- Right-handed rotation around the Z-axis using the Z-coordinate of the 3D vector.
- As last operation the object is shifted to the position (the origin is set to the position coordinates). For some Objects with a route, the start position is the first (or indexed) point of the route.
The POTI (point information) section describes routes; these are routes for many things including cameras and objects.
Each entry is a 0x04 byte structure as follows, which is followed by 0x10 byte structures:
|0x00||UInt16||Number of points in the route.|
|0x02||Byte|| Route setting 1, 0 or 1 in Nintendo's tracks.
|0x03||Byte|| Route setting 2, 0 or 1 in Nintendo's tracks.
Each point in each entry is as follows:
|0x00||Float||A 3D position vector of the route position.|
|0x0C||UInt16||Route point settings. If used for speed or time, the value is based of 1/60s.|
|0x0E||UInt16||Additional settings, depend on the object. Values found in Nintendo's tracks: 0 (~94%), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12.|
The AREA section describes areas; used to determine which camera to use for example. The size is 5000 for both the positive and negative sides of the X and the Z axes, and 10000 for only the positive side of the Y axis. Each entry is a 0x30 byte structure as follows:
|0x00||Byte||Area mode. Values 0 or 1, unknown meaning.|
|0x01||Byte||Area type. Values 0–9.|
|0x02||Byte||Index of CAME if type = 0x00, 0xFF else.|
|0x04||Float||A 3D position vector of the area.|
|0x10||Float||A 3D rotation vector of the area's rotation.|
|0x1C||Float||A 3D scale vector of the area's scale.|
|0x28||UInt16|| Defines the posteffect that is used.
0 = posteffect 0
|0x2C||Byte||Route ID used by AREA type 3.|
|0x2D||Byte||Unknown. Always 0xFF.|
|0x2E||UInt16||Enemy point ID. Exact meaning unknown, always 0 in Nintendo tracks.|
The list can be found in the XML file /Race/Course/koopa_course.szs/course.0. Use it only for hints how it can work:
menu AREAtype 7 item Camera 0 item ObjClip 1 item EfControl 2 item FogControl 3 item PullControl 4 item EnemyFall 5 item 2DmapArea 6
The CAME section describes cameras; used to determine cameras for starting routes, time trial pans, etc.
The u8 at offset 0x06 in the section header is the index of the first camera to use in the opening pan around the track. The u8 value at offset 0x7 in the section header is the first camera used in the videos on the track selection menu of the track. This value is ignored, as the videos have already been generated and stored.
Each entry is a 0x48 byte structure as follows:
|Offset||Type||Description|| Box name in
| Names in
| Column name in
| Box name in|
|0x00||Byte||Camera type.|| Settings
(box 1, first 2 digits)
|0x01||Byte||Next camera entry index. Value 0xFF means: no next camera.|| Settings
(box 1, second 2 digits)
|0x02||Byte||Camshake. Exact meanings unknown (always 0).|| Settings
(box 1, third 2 digits)
|0x03||Byte||Route used by the camera. This is index link into the POTI section. The value 0xFF means "no route".|| Settings
(box 1, last 2 digits)
|0x04||UInt16||Velocity of the camera point in units per 100/60 sec (=distance/1.67 sec).|| Settings
(box 2, first 4 digits)
|0x06||UInt16||Velocity of zooming in units per 100/60 sec (=units/1.67 sec) (tested with camera type 5).|| Settings
(box 2, last 4 digits)
|0x08||UInt16||Velocity of the view point in distance per 100/60 sec (=distance/1.67 sec) (tested with camera type 5).|| Settings
(box 3, first 4 digits)
|0x0A||Byte||Start flag. Exact meanings unknown.|| Settings
(box 3, third 2 digits)
(First 2 digits)
|0x0B||Byte||Movie flag. Exact meanings unknown.|| Settings
(box 3, last 2 digits)
(Second 2 digits)
|0x0C||Float||A 3D position vector of the camera.||X, Y and Z||position (x,y,z)||X, Y and Z||PositionX, PositionY and PositionZ|
|0x18||Float||A rotation 3D vector. Almost always 0,0,0.||X2, Y2 and Z2||rotation (x,y,z)||Roll, Yaw and Pitch||RotationX, RotationY and RotationZ|
|0x24||Float||Zoom start: The angle of view (field of view). Angles >180 create curios effects.||X3||zoom beg||Zoom||Zoomstart|
|0x28||Float||Zoom end. The camera changes the zoom to this value. Offset 0x06 (Velocity) controls the speed of zooming.||Y3||zoom end||Zoom2||Zoomend.|
|0x2C||Float||Start vector of the view point (camera type 5) or the relative camera position (camera type 3).||Z3, X4 and Y4||view point beg (x,y,z)||View(x), View(y) and View(z)||ViewStartX, ViewStartY and ViewStartZ|
|0x38||Float||(Destination) vector of the view point.||Z4, X5 and Y5||view point end (x,y,z)||View2(x), View2(y) and View2(z)||ViewEndX, ViewEndY and ViewEndZ|
|0x44||Float||The time how long this Camera is active. (in units of 1/60 seconds).||Z5||sec*60||Time||Time|
The list can be found in the XML file /Race/Course/koopa_course.szs/course.0. Use it only for hints how it can work:
menu CAMType 9 item Goal 0 item FixSearch 1 item PathSearch 2 item KartFollow 3 item KartPathFollow 4 item OP_FixMoveAt 5 item OP_PathMoveAt 6 item MiniGame 7 item MissionSuccess 8
|0x00||Float||A 3D position vector of the respawn position.|
|0x0C||Float||A 3D rotation vector to define the direction for the players.|
|0x18||UInt16||The ID of this respawn position. For all Nintendo tracks the value is set to the index. The usage is unknown and links of the CKPT section points to the index and are not related to this id (tested by Wiimm).|
Read »Respawn Point« for more information and for hints about placing the respawn points.
The CNPT section describes cannon points; the cannon target positions. Each entry is a 0x1C byte structure as follows:
|0x00||Float||A 3D destination of the cannon. This point defines a destination tangent or border of a ball around the cannon, which is the landing zone. (Think: 2D circle with the cannon in the middle).|
|0x0C||Float|| A 3D angle vector of the direction to release players from the cannon in. The second value (Y-rotation from cannon start point) is the most important value, because it declares the shooting direction. The players flight in the entered direction until they reach the defined tangent.
If the X value is >0.0 and ≤100.0, it is possible, that a driver turns right or left if landing. See this video as example.
|0x18||UInt16||The ID of this cannon position. For all Nintendo tracks the value is set to the index. This value seems do be irrelevant. For the KCL flag the zero based index is important.|
|0x1A||Int16||Shoot effect: 0xFFFF is straight, 0x0001 is curved, 0x0002 is curved AND slow, 0x0003 is slow.|
- How to calculate the Y-rotation
- First find out the cannon point and call it P1. It is the middle of the cannon area in the KCL.
- Now find out the destination point and call it P2.
- The horizontal direction is now calculated by: atan2( P2.x - P1.x, P2.z - P1.z ). Don't forget, that many calculators use radiant instead of degree. If so, multiply the result by 180/π (~57.29578).
- If atan2() is not available, atan( (P2.x-P1.x) / (P2.z-P1.z) ) can be used, but the sign of the result must be determined by yourself.
- If using Wiimms KMP compiler, just enter hDir(P1,P2) in the place of the y value.
See »Creating a Cannon« for more details.
The MSPT section describes MSPT; After battles and competitions have ended the players are placed on this point(s). Each entry is a 0x1C byte structure as follows:
|0x00||Float||A 3D position vector of this point.|
|0x0C||Float||A 3D angle vector of this point.|
|0x18||UInt16||The ID of this entry. For all Nintendo tracks the value is set to the index. The usage is unknown.|
The STGI section describes stage information; information about the course. Each entry is a 0x0C byte structure as follows:
|0x00||Byte|| Despite the weird names for this setting in the course.0 file (0: "(null)", 1: "Test", 2: "MINI_GAME", 3: "Grandprix") which seem to be the types for Mario Kart DS, this setting was intended to be the lap count. All the original tracks have this value set to 3, and all the competitions with a modified lap count have the actual lap count in there. |
However, the game does not load it, even for competitions the lap count is loaded from the RKC file instead.
There is a cheat code which fixes the behaviour and makes the game use this value as lap count in normal races.
|0x01||Byte|| 0: Pole position is left.|
1: Pole position is right.
|0x02||Byte|| 0: Normal distance.|
1: Driver are closer together (in driving direction, narrow mode).
|0x03||Byte||Unknown. 0 or 1 in Nintendo tracks.|
|0x04||Byte||FLARE_COLOR, as defined in course.0. 0x00E6E6E6 or 0x00FFFFFF in Nintendo tracks. This is the lighting color given by the lensFX object in ARGB format.|
|0x08||Byte||Unknown. 50 or 75 in Nintendo tracks.|
|0x09||Byte||Unknown. Always 0 in Nintendo tracks.|
|0x0A||Byte||Unknown. Always 0 in Nintendo tracks.
This value is also used as speed modifier in some Custom Track Distributions. Therefore the 2 most significant bytes of the floating point speed factor are stored in this member.
- The initial interpretation of this section is based on definitions in the XML file /Race/Course/koopa_course.szs/course.0. Some people made tests and change the parameters without detecting any impact except the 2 documented bytes → Resume: It seems that this section is a mostly unused relict of early development.
- See »Start Position« for more details about the pole position and the narrow mode.
The following tools can handle KMP files:
- Modern Tools
- Old Tools
Wiimms SZS Tools converts a KMP file into a text representation including a small documentation. This text file can be edited with any editor or external tool. After modification the text file must be encoded into the binary representation. This encoding is done by a parser and compiler. While encoding, some parameters are calculated/corrected automatically. This whole decoding/encoding process covers all KMP parameters and allow the usage of names, variables and numerical expressions instead of simple numbers. → How to edit KMP files