YAZ0 (File Format)

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Yaz0 is a run length encoding (RLE compression) method. In Mario Kart Wii most of the SZS files are Yaz0 compressed U8 files. See »File format: U8 archives« for details.



Data structure

Header

The header of a Yaz0 file is always 16 bytes long. All numeric values stored as big endian.

Offset Type Description
0x00 Char[4] magic. Always Yaz0 in ASCII.
0x04 UInt32 Size in bytes of the uncompressed data.
0x08 Byte[8] Reserved for special use. Always 0 in Mario Kart Wii.
GNU C example
typedef struct yaz0_header_t
{
    char	magic[4];		// always "Yaz0"
    be32_t	uncompressed_size;	// total size of uncompressed data
    char	padding[8];		// always 0?
}
__attribute__ ((packed)) yaz0_header_t;

Data Groups

The complete compressed data is organized in data groups. Each data group consists of 1 group header byte and 8 chunks.

N Size Description
1 1 byte the group header byte
8 1-3 bytes 8 chunks

Each bit of the group header corespondents to one chunk:

  • The MSB (most significant bit, 0x80) corespondents to chunk 1
  • The LSB (lowest significant bit, 0x01) corespondents to chunk 8

A set bit (=1) in the group header means, that the chunk is exact 1 byte long. This byte must be copied to the output stream 1:1. A cleared bit (=0) defines, that the chunk is 2 or 3 bytes long interpreted as a back reference to already decompressed data that must be copied.

Size Data Bytes Size Calculation
2 bytes NR RR N = 1..f SIZE = N+2 (=3..0x11)
3 bytes 0R RR NN N = 00..ff SIZE = N+0x12 (=0x12..0x111)
  • RRR is a value between 0x000 and 0xfff. Go back RRR+1 bytes in the output stream to find the start of the data to be copied.
  • SIZE is calculated from N (see above) and declares the number of bytes to be copied.
  • It is important to know, that a chunk may reference itself. For example if RRR=1 (go back 1+1=2) and SIZE=10 the previous 2 bytes are copied 10/2=5 times.

Decoding data groups and chunks is done until the end of the destination data is reached.

Examples

Decompression

GNU C example
const u8 * src      = // pointer to start of source
const u8 * src_end  = // pointer to end of source (last byte +1)
u8 * dest           = // pointer to start of destination
u8 * dest_end       = // pointer to end of destination (last byte +1)

u8  group_head      = 0; // group header byte ...
int group_head_len  = 0; // ... and it's length to manage groups

while ( src < src_end && dest < dest_end )
{
    if (!group_head_len)
    {
	//*** start a new data group and read the group header byte.

        group_head = *src++;
        group_head_len = 8;
    }

    group_head_len--;
    if ( group_head & 0x80 )
    {
        //*** bit in group header byte is set -> copy 1 byte direct

        *dest++ = *src++;
    }
    else
    {
        //*** bit in group header byte is not set -> run length encoding

	// read the first 2 bytes of the chunk
        const u8 b1 = *src++;
        const u8 b2 = *src++;
        
	// calculate the source position
        const u8 * copy_src = dest - (( b1 & 0x0f ) << 8 | b2 ) - 1;

	// calculate the number of bytes to copy.
        int n = b1 >> 4;

        if (!n)
            n = *src++ + 0x12; // N==0 -> read third byte
        else
            n += 2; // add 2 to length
        ASSERT( n >= 3 && n <= 0x111 );

	// a validity check
        if ( copy_src < szs->data || dest + n > dest_end )
            return ERROR("Corrupted data!\n");

	// copy chunk data.
        // don't use memcpy() or memmove() here because
        // they don't work with self referencing chunks.
        while ( n-- > 0 )
            *dest++ = *copy_src++;
    }

    // shift group header byte
    group_head <<= 1;
}

// some assertions to find errors in debugging mode
ASSERT( src <= src_end );
ASSERT( dest <= dest_end );

This code example is taken from Wiimms SZS Tools: SVN repository lib-szs.c line 162

Tools

The following tools can handle compressed U8 files (=SZS files):

Wexos's Toolbox and Wiimms SZS Tools are able to (de-)compress any kind of Yaz0-compressed files. CTools and SZS Modifier can only handle U8 files.